Recently there have been big advancements in image classification due to architectural improvements such as convolutions and inceptions, partially inspired by biological networks.
Reverse-engineering these networks not only gives a glimpse into the inner workings of these algorithms, but also suggests intriguing parallels between machine and human perception and offers artists new techniques for digital image creation.
Other applications of deep learning:
Several libraries have been developed to ease the task of building neural networks, including:
How to install Caffe on Mac OS X 10.11
Install caffe on Mac with El Capitan
A trained neural network can be considered as a high-dimensional encoding